The human being is born with a stock of about 100 billion neurons. At birth, only 10% of these connections, the synapses, are already completed. The remaining 90% will build gradually as environments (family, school, the internet, etc.) enable the decoding of the information collected (chapter 6, no 19).
Information above all is a measure of the human being,
since it is always relative to the observer.
Information is related to the ability of the intelligence of the individual to understand it. To understand is to perceive a significant relationship between various phenomena. Knowledge is thus made fit for purpose. The role of information is to make sense of the chaos that arises from the cacophony that exists in our society.
Knowledge is Power.
Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
Information is a resource like water or food:
• 1st Industrial Revolution
Primary resources: natural resources.
• 2nd Industrial Revolution:
Secondary resources: those in the manufacturing industry.
• 3rd Industrial Revolution
Tertiary resources : services
• 4th Industrial Revolution (forthcoming)
Quaternary resources : knowledge and expertise.
In the knowledge-based society, information is intangible capital that is extremely mobile and transformable, especially because it is scanned to the extent that modern man becomes an informivore. See, in this regard, the number of information appliances and their global penetration rate in 2013 (figures from the ITU and Morgan Stanley):
||78% global penetration
1673 The concepts of the nature of logic, a machine calculating and universal library (Leibniz).
1772 Organization of encyclopedic knowledge (Diderot).
1834 Analytical Engine (Babbage).
1934 Theory of communication networks (Mumford).
1936 Algorithms and programming (Turing).
1945 Hypertext and the extension of human memory (Bush).
1948 Cybernetics (Wiener).
1949 Mathematical Theory of Communication (Shannon).
1950 Artificial intelligence (Turing).
1951 UNIVAC I, the first computer to non military use.
1960 The theory of mass society (Bell).
1964 Intelsat, the first global communications system (private consortium).
1967 The Global Village (McLuhan).
1975 The concept of the Information Society (OECD).
1977 The computerization of society (Nora and Minc).
1995 Internationalization Internet Protocol (G7).
1999 The prosecutor Kenneth Starr releases its report on the Clinton affair – Lewinsky- Web rather than in the traditional newspapers.
2005 Recognition of civil society (Information Society, Tunis).
2007 Smartphones with camera.
2008 Start of Big data and cloud
2013 Scandal of the NSA (Prism-Snowden)
Its various forms
Information appears in different forms: text, data, diagrams, images, tweets, etc. For example, it is still surprising when we see all the visual symbols and logos still in everyday use. Our cognitive heritage probably has more than 50,000 symbols :
The great challenge of the twenty-first century will be to transform billions of pieces of structured data into knowledge, because, at present, 80% of the data are not structured. The knowledge-based society will become a society of industrialized information when it becomes both :
- an economic phenomenon (it is a commodity) ;
- a technical phenomenon (its shape depends on its support) ;
- a political phenomenon (it involves power relations) ;
- a cultural phenomenon (it refers to a symbol determined by a given time space).
An iconic grammar
In the area of communications, we have a visual legacy consisting of thousands of signs, symbols and logos. Their use has multiplied because of the recent arrival of various types of smart devices without keyboards and cameras. One problem is now emerging in the field of new media writings: the use of an iconic grammar (chapter 5, no 3).
This grammar is combined either by the addition or combination of graphic elements giving it new meanings. An example is the sign-record :