It consists of more than 30,000 networks with no hub. It provides access to more than 200 million public websites, private, commercial, government and military. It also connects 1 billion TVs, 2 billion PCs and 5 billion cellular devices.
It uses both wired and wireless infrastructure thanks to telco and cable, the electric grid, satellites, radio waves and mobile devices which must be added to the wireless technology, GPS, RFID, and now the cloud (no 14).
If we divided horizontally a critical mass of users and the time for circulating media content (from 1 sec. to 3 months), we can understand its media range (see below).
The diagram also shows the use of three communication modes according to the needs of the moment : pointcasting, narrowcasting and broadcasting (below).
Point-casting focuses on the interpersonal (conversation and immediacy), while broadcasting is more oriented towards the long term because it is used by a large mass of people.
Narrowcasting is used by groups :
It is an omnivorous dragon, fuelled by emotions.
Integration is carried out on three levels :
Developers are now forced to share all resources such as switches, hubs, satellite, coaxial cable, etc. ;
Developers are forced to hybridize with mash-up platforms and to offer more hybrid services ;
They are forced to use telecommunications simultaneously – broadcasting, computers and electronics.
The transition from Internet to Internet 2
This is the transition from pipe to smart pipe :
2000 Playstation : Game Console
Wi-Fi : WLAN Broadband Wireless
RFID : Data Recovery by RFID tags
Bluetooth : connections between electronic devices
GPS : civilian geo-positioning system
2001 iPod : music player
iTunes : music buying service
Wikipedia : collaborative encyclopedia
2002 phones with cameras to trade
Digital Cameras 35 mm
Firefox : Browser
2003 Blog : journal of opinion over time
Skype : Internet telephony
Wiki : Collaborative writing site
MySpace : social network mostly used by musicians to debut
2004 Facebook : Social network
GoogleMaps : Card service plans
Flickr : photo sharing site
2005 YouTube video hosting site
2006 Flat screen TV for home theater
Wii : gestural games console
2007 iPhone : smartphone
Kindle : electronic reader of books
2008 Twitter : microblogging social network
2009 iPad : smart touch screen tablet
Apple IOS 4 : multitasking (iPhone + iPod + iPad)
Retina display of Apple : 4 times more pixels on the screen
Right now, a Web platform is based on three protocols (TCP / IP, hypertext and HTML) and offers five services: television, telephone, computer, online games and mobile. Internet 2 uses three types of communication : from person to person, machine-based and machine-to-machine. If one third of the devices are PC, the other two thirds are smart phones and tablets. We have seen the growing impact of Internet 2 in the last 5 years :
||20% to 43%
||8% to 44%
||40% to 30%
||of smart TV
||18% to 44%
Currently, the Internet is very unevenly distributed. Two large digital divides have been created. The first divide is between classes (the haves and have-nots) and the second between territories (those who live in large cities and those in the regions) :
The Internet is not equally distributed across the world
(According to the Pocket World in Figures, The Economist, 2015 Edition) :
Internet 2 is
- a public place – a space-and-time which is ‘exchanging’ power between rulers and civil society ;
- a platform for publishing – a space-and-time where developers offer dreams to all citizens;
- an economic area – a space-and-time where citizen can obtains added value that offers access to a better quality of life ;
- a sounding board that gives voice to thousands of citizens who can now express often-contradictory opinions ;
- a real-time loudspeaker speaker that describes disparate events taking place simultaneously everywhere across the planet.
It’s still a wild west.
Botnets are networks of infected by hackers (spam, viruses, theft, etc.) and are unsafe for a variety of reasons. Below, the percentage of bot-infested networks in various countries :
(The Economist, July 12, 2014, source : Symantec)
In 2014, Internet 2 publishes and circulates 3 million emails per second, 20 hours of video via YouTube every minute, and 50 million tweets and 2 million blog posts every day. This creates the phenomenon known as Big Data, and imposes three challenges : addresses (URL and IRL), quantitative data processing and a need for the development of new search engines (chapter 1, no. 7).
During the industrial era, Big Data was primarily created by commercial or government actors. Since the transition (2000-2010), new Big Data is increasingly generated by personalized exchanges which have become exponential over the years, notably because of online business (especially credit cards) and the emergence of social networks.
The second handicap is that the creators of the old databases used a classical view of the world that is no longer adequate to understand emerging societies: a world organized into social classes and markets (a nod to Adam Smith and Karl Marx).
The United States presidential election, 2008
It is with the help of processing and analyzing Big Data that Obama was elected in his first campaign. A team of young programmers (Civis Analytics) created a two-part program (Data crunching & Analytic) which allowed them to process millions of pieces of general data to plan strategies and forecast the results (1%) in each city and every US state. This method (vote targeting) was used to better define some of their strategic decisions : media choices, value for money, etc.
For over fifty years, electronic media has been converging because of what they have borrowed from digital technologies. Especially for economic requirements; content has become less expensive to produce and distribute. (diagram inspired by the analyses of Nicholas Negroponte, MIT MediaLab in 1985) :
The production of content must be publicized via a multi-platform approach (A multiple layout reformatting, see the Advanced Hybrid Layout) that created new kinds of individually-managed content :
- Smart TV : Networking comments or tweeting, viewing on YouTube, DVD rentals associated with specific events, etc.
- Unpublished video online for subscribers (House of Cards, for example) on Netflix, Hulu or HBO (viewing one treats an entire season).
- Cinema : home theatre, DVD rentals, films made for television projection, etc.
- Video games that cost as much to develop as a film (Grand Theft Auto V has cost $ 270 million to develop). New generation of consoles (PS4 Sony, Microsoft Xbox One, etc. Soon the 3D).
- Printed : interactive book to read on-screen, DVD-box, online family album, e-zine, online archive, access to digital encyclopaedic knowledge, e-paper, E Ink, e-Book, authors who decide to self-publish directly on their website (without intermediaries).
- Libraries without printed books (located in the Cloud).
- Music : purchase via iTunes, MP3, podcasting, access to live performances, etc.
- Audiovisual : interactive multimedia, opera broadcast on the cinema screen, public terminals, etc.
- The smart public areas : media facade, entertainment and crowd control, interactive installation at events, spatial arrangement of games, creation of urban furniture, crowd control bracelet, etc.
A picture of the United States at night as seen by satellite. Each light spot is a city, while the lines are roads. We can clearly distinguish the grid :
The media spectrum :
The use of the devices is different depending on the content and their clients. In the diagram below we discover that all citizens do not use the same tools, even in a multi-platform world :
Futurists think that after 2020 an individual could connect an average of six different types of devices (including those of consumer electronics, the third generation of home automation, smart cities and worn objects or wearables).