There are no smart city if at the base,
there is no intelligent citizen participation.
At the end of the Great War of 1939-45, only two areas of analysis were studied : the state and the individual. Now we see cities developing between these two poles because half of the citizens of the planet have become urban residents in recent years (in 1900 = 13 % while in 2014 = 50%).
The city is the last concrete territory where one pays attention to practical details (parks, transportation, and other services) as opposed to the state, where everything else is abstract (a service statistic or a tax). The rise in the political influence and power of cities is so important that policy analysts are beginning to speak of geopolitical redefinition. Located between public space and personal space, a private space has appeared :